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Strategic Depth: A Vision for Turkey's Foreign Policy in the 21st Century


# Ahmet Davutoglu Strategic Depth Pdf 21l ## Introduction - Explain what is strategic depth and why it is important for Turkey - Introduce Ahmet Davutoglu as the author of the book and his role in Turkish foreign policy - Provide a brief overview of the main arguments and themes of the book ## Historical Background - Discuss the historical experience of the Ottoman Empire and its legacy for Turkey - Analyze the Kemalist revolution and its impact on Turkish identity and foreign policy - Trace the evolution of Turkish foreign policy from isolationism to westernization to neo-Ottomanism ## Theoretical Framework - Present Davutoglu's concept of strategic depth as a holistic and multidimensional approach to foreign policy - Explain the key principles and objectives of strategic depth, such as balance, integration, influence, and soft power - Compare and contrast strategic depth with other foreign policy doctrines, such as realism, liberalism, and constructivism ## Regional Dimensions - Examine how strategic depth applies to different regions and issues that affect Turkey's interests and security - Focus on four main regions: Europe, Middle East, Central Asia, and Balkans - Highlight the challenges and opportunities for Turkey in each region, such as EU membership, Arab Spring, energy security, and ethnic conflicts ## Global Implications - Assess the impact of strategic depth on Turkey's role and status in the international arena - Discuss the benefits and risks of strategic depth for Turkey's relations with major powers, such as US, Russia, China, and Iran - Evaluate the prospects and limitations of strategic depth for Turkey's contribution to global peace and stability ## Conclusion - Summarize the main points and findings of the article - Reiterate the significance and relevance of strategic depth for Turkey's foreign policy - Provide some recommendations and suggestions for future research and policy ## FAQs - What is the main difference between strategic depth and neo-Ottomanism? - How does strategic depth deal with the Kurdish issue? - What are some of the criticisms and controversies surrounding strategic depth? - How does strategic depth affect Turkey's human rights and democracy record? - How does strategic depth relate to Turkey's cultural and religious identity? Now I will start writing the article based on this outline. Please wait for a few minutes while I generate the content. Thank you for your patience.? OK, I'm continuing to write the article. Here is the first part of the article with HTML formatting: Ahmet Davutoglu Strategic Depth Pdf 21l




Introduction




What is strategic depth and why does it matter for Turkey? This is the main question that Ahmet Davutoglu, a prominent Turkish scholar and politician, tries to answer in his influential book Strategic Depth: Turkey's International Position. The book, first published in Turkish in 2001 and later translated into several languages, offers a comprehensive and visionary analysis of Turkey's foreign policy in the 21st century. It reflects Davutoglu's academic expertise as well as his practical experience as the chief foreign policy advisor to Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and later as the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Prime Minister of Turkey.




Ahmet Davutoglu Strategic Depth Pdf 21l



In this article, we will explore the main arguments and themes of Davutoglu's book and examine how they have shaped Turkey's foreign policy in the past two decades. We will also assess the strengths and weaknesses of Davutoglu's concept of strategic depth and its implications for Turkey's role and status in the regional and global arena. We will argue that strategic depth is a holistic and multidimensional approach to foreign policy that aims to balance Turkey's historical legacy, geographical position, cultural identity, and global interests. We will also suggest that strategic depth has enabled Turkey to expand its influence and integration in various regions, but also exposed it to new challenges and risks that require careful management and adaptation.


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One of the main architects and advocates of Turkey's new foreign policy in the 21st century is Ahmet Davutoglu, who has been described as "Turkey's Kissinger" and "the brains behind Turkey's global repositioning". Davutoglu is a professor of international relations and political science, who has written several books and articles on Turkey's foreign policy and regional issues. He also served as the chief foreign policy advisor to Prime Minister Erdogan from 2003 to 2009, and then as the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2009 to 2014, and as the Prime Minister from 2014 to 2016. Davutoglu is widely regarded as the mastermind and spokesperson of Turkey's foreign policy vision and strategy.


Davutoglu's main contribution to Turkey's foreign policy is his concept of strategic depth, which he elaborated in his book Strategic Depth: Turkey's International Position. The book is considered as a manifesto and a roadmap for Turkey's foreign policy in the new millennium. In the book, Davutoglu argues that Turkey has a unique and advantageous position in the world, due to its historical legacy, geographical location, cultural identity, and global interests. He claims that Turkey has a strategic depth that enables it to play an active and influential role in various regions and issues that affect its security and prosperity. He also suggests that Turkey has a responsibility and a potential to contribute to the peace and stability of its neighborhood and beyond.


According to Davutoglu, strategic depth is a holistic and multidimensional approach to foreign policy that aims to achieve four main objectives: balance, integration, influence, and soft power. Balance means that Turkey should maintain a balanced and constructive relationship with all major powers and actors in the international system, without being dominated or alienated by any of them. Integration means that Turkey should enhance its economic, political, social, and cultural ties with its neighboring regions and countries, without being isolated or marginalized by any of them. Influence means that Turkey should assert its leadership and initiative in addressing the regional and global challenges and opportunities that affect its interests and values, without being passive or reactive to any of them. Soft power means that Turkey should use its cultural, historical, religious, and humanitarian assets to win the hearts and minds of the people and societies in its neighborhood and beyond, without being coercive or aggressive to any of them.


Davutoglu's concept of strategic depth is based on a theoretical framework that combines elements from different schools of thought in international relations. Davutoglu draws on realism when he emphasizes the importance of power, security, and interests in foreign policy. He also draws on liberalism when he stresses the value of cooperation, interdependence, and institutions in foreign policy. He also draws on constructivism when he highlights the role of identity, culture, and norms in foreign policy. Davutoglu's concept of strategic depth can be seen as an attempt to synthesize these different perspectives into a coherent and comprehensive vision for Turkey's foreign policy.


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One of the main features of Davutoglu's concept of strategic depth is its application to different regions and issues that affect Turkey's interests and security. Davutoglu argues that Turkey has a strategic depth in four main regions: Europe, Middle East, Central Asia, and Balkans. He also claims that Turkey has a strategic role and responsibility in dealing with various regional and global issues, such as terrorism, energy, democracy, human rights, and humanitarian crises. In this section, we will examine how strategic depth applies to each region and issue and how it has shaped Turkey's foreign policy in the past two decades.


Europe




Europe is one of the most important regions for Turkey's foreign policy, as it is Turkey's main partner in terms of trade, investment, security, and culture. Turkey has been a candidate for EU membership since 1999 and has been negotiating its accession since 2005. Turkey also has a long-standing relationship with NATO, which provides Turkey with a security umbrella and a platform for cooperation with other allies. Turkey also has strong ties with many European countries, especially Germany, France, and the UK, which are influential actors in the EU and the international arena.


According to Davutoglu, strategic depth means that Turkey should pursue its EU membership as a strategic goal and a historical opportunity. He argues that Turkey's EU membership would benefit both Turkey and the EU, as it would create a bridge between Europe and other regions, such as the Middle East, Central Asia, and Africa. He also argues that Turkey's EU membership would enhance Turkey's democracy, economy, and society, as well as its influence and integration in the world. He also suggests that Turkey's EU membership would contribute to the peace and stability of Europe and its neighborhood.


However, Davutoglu also acknowledges that Turkey's EU membership faces many challenges and obstacles, such as the lack of political will and public support in some EU countries, the unresolved Cyprus issue, the slow pace of reforms in Turkey, and the rise of nationalism and populism in Europe. He also recognizes that Turkey's EU membership is not the only option or dimension for Turkey's relations with Europe. He proposes that Turkey should also develop its bilateral and multilateral relations with other European countries and organizations, such as the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP). He also proposes that Turkey should play an active role in addressing the common challenges and opportunities that affect Europe and its neighborhood, such as migration, terrorism, energy security, climate change, and regional conflicts.


Middle East




Middle East is another important region for Turkey's foreign policy, as it is Turkey's immediate neighbor and a source of many opportunities and threats for Turkey. The Middle East is a region that has witnessed many changes and crises in the past two decades, such as the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, the Arab Spring in 2011, the Syrian civil war since 2011, the rise and fall of ISIS since 2014, the Iran nuclear deal in 2015, and the normalization of relations between Israel and some Arab countries in 2020. The Middle East is also a region that has many actors and interests that affect Turkey's security and prosperity, such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Qatar, UAE, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, and Yemen.


According to Davutoglu, strategic depth means that Turkey should engage with the Middle East as a regional power and a responsible actor. He argues that Turkey has a strategic depth in the Middle East due to its historical ties, geographical proximity, cultural affinity, and economic interdependence with the region. He also argues that Turkey has a strategic role and responsibility in the Middle East, as it can offer a model of democracy, development, and stability for the region. He also suggests that Turkey has a strategic interest and vision in the Middle East, as it seeks to promote peace, cooperation, and integration in the region.


However, Davutoglu also admits that Turkey's engagement with the Middle East faces many difficulties and dilemmas, such as the complexity and diversity of the region, the volatility and unpredictability of the regional dynamics, the rivalry and hostility of some regional actors, the interference and influence of external powers, and the impact and spillover of regional conflicts. He also admits that Turkey's engagement with the Middle East has not always been consistent or successful, as it has sometimes resulted in isolation or confrontation with some regional actors, such as Syria, Egypt, Israel, and Saudi Arabia. He also admits that Turkey's engagement with the Middle East has not always been supported or appreciated by some external actors, such as the US, the EU, and Russia. He also admits that Turkey's engagement with the Middle East has not always been welcomed or trusted by some domestic actors, such as the secularists, the nationalists, and the Kurds.


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Central Asia is another important region for Turkey's foreign policy, as it is Turkey's historical and cultural homeland and a source of many opportunities and challenges for Turkey. Central Asia is a region that consists of five former Soviet republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. These countries share common ethnic, linguistic, religious, and historical ties with Turkey, as they are all Turkic and Muslim nations. These countries also have rich natural resources, especially oil and gas, that are vital for Turkey's energy security and economic development. These countries also face many problems and threats, such as poverty, corruption, authoritarianism, terrorism, extremism, and ethnic conflicts.


According to Davutoglu, strategic depth means that Turkey should support and cooperate with Central Asia as a strategic partner and a brotherly nation. He argues that Turkey has a strategic depth in Central Asia due to its historical legacy, cultural affinity, and economic interdependence with the region. He also argues that Turkey has a strategic role and responsibility in Central Asia, as it can offer a model of democracy, development, and stability for the region. He also suggests that Turkey has a strategic interest and vision in Central Asia, as it seeks to promote peace, cooperation, and integration in the region.


However, Davutoglu also recognizes that Turkey's support and cooperation with Central Asia faces many obstacles and limitations, such as the diversity and complexity of the region, the sovereignty and independence of the regional states, the competition and influence of other regional and global powers, such as Russia, China, Iran, and the US, and the impact and spillover of regional conflicts, such as the Afghan war. He also recognizes that Turkey's support and cooperation with Central Asia has not always been effective or consistent, as it has sometimes suffered from lack of political will, financial resources, institutional capacity, and public awareness. He also recognizes that Turkey's support and cooperation with Central Asia has not always been appreciated or reciprocated by some regional actors, such as Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.


Balkans




Balkans is another important region for Turkey's foreign policy, as it is Turkey's former territory and a source of many opportunities and threats for Turkey. The Balkans is a region that includes several countries in Southeastern Europe, such as Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia. These countries have diverse ethnic, linguistic, religious, and historical backgrounds, but also share common experiences of Ottoman rule, communist regime, and ethnic conflict. These countries also have strategic importance for Turkey's security and prosperity, as they are located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. These countries also face many challenges and opportunities, such as poverty, corruption, democratization, integration, and reconciliation.


According to Davutoglu, strategic depth means that Turkey should engage with the Balkans as a strategic neighbor and a friendly nation. He argues that Turkey has a strategic depth in the Balkans due to its historical legacy, cultural affinity, and economic interdependence with the region. He also argues that Turkey has a strategic role and responsibility in the Balkans, as it can offer a model of democracy, development, and stability for the region. He also suggests that Turkey has a strategic interest and vision in the Balkans, as it seeks to promote peace, cooperation, and integration in the region.


However, Davutoglu also admits that Turkey's engagement with the Balkans faces many difficulties and dilemmas, such as the diversity and complexity of the region, the sensitivity and fragility of the regional states, the rivalry and hostility of some regional actors, such as Greece and Serbia, the interference and influence of external powers, such as Russia and the EU, and the impact and spillover of regional conflicts, such as the Kosovo issue. He also admits that Turkey's engagement with the Balkans has not always been successful or consistent, as it has sometimes resulted in isolation or confrontation with some regional actors, such as Bulgaria and Romania. He also admits that Turkey's engagement with the Balkans has not always been supported or appreciated by some external actors, such as the US and NATO.


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In addition to the regional dimensions, Davutoglu's concept of strategic depth also has global implications for Turkey's role and status in the international arena. Davutoglu argues that Turkey has a strategic depth in the global system due to its historical experience, geographical position, cultural identity, and global interests. He also argues that Turkey has a strategic role and responsibility in the global system, as it can offer a unique perspective and contribution to the global issues and challenges that affect the humanity and the planet. He also suggests that Turkey has a strategic interest and vision in the global system, as it seeks to enhance its influence and integration in the world.


According to Davutoglu, strategic depth means that Turkey should pursue a multidimensional and proactive foreign policy that aims to achieve four main objectives: security, development, democracy, and civilization. Security means that Turkey should protect its national interests and sovereignty from any threats or challenges, as well as contribute to the collective security and stability of its region and the world. Development means that Turkey should improve its economic performance and welfare, as well as support the economic development and cooperation of its region and the world. Democracy means that Turkey should consolidate its democratic institutions and values, as well as promote the democratic transition and participation of its region and the world. Civilization means that Turkey should preserve its cultural diversity and richness, as well as foster the dialogue and understanding among different civilizations and cultures in its region and the world.


However, Davutoglu also acknowledges that Turkey's pursuit of a multidimensional and pro


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