top of page

Neurokiné (Público)

Público·14 miembros
Hunter Campbell
Hunter Campbell

RCC Theory and Design Shah and Karve: Everything You Need to Know


RCC Theory and Design Shah and Karve: A Comprehensive Guide




If you are interested in learning about reinforced cement concrete (RCC) theory and design, you may have come across the name Shah and Karve. They are the authors of a popular book on this topic, which covers both the fundamentals and the applications of RCC. In this article, we will give you a comprehensive guide on RCC theory and design Shah and Karve, including what RCC is, what its principles and applications are, and what the book offers. Let's get started!




rcc theory and design shah and karve



What is RCC?




RCC stands for reinforced cement concrete, which is a composite material made of concrete and steel reinforcement. Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, aggregate, and water, which hardens into a strong and durable material. Steel reinforcement is embedded in the concrete to provide tensile strength, which is the ability to resist stretching or pulling forces. Together, concrete and steel reinforcement form a material that can withstand both compressive and tensile stresses.


What is RCC theory and design?




RCC theory and design is the branch of civil engineering that deals with the analysis and design of RCC structures. Analysis involves calculating the internal forces and deformations in an RCC structure under various loads and conditions. Design involves selecting the appropriate dimensions, shapes, materials, and details of an RCC structure to ensure its safety, serviceability, economy, and aesthetics.


Who are Shah and Karve?




Shah and Karve are two Indian civil engineers who have written a comprehensive book on RCC theory and design. The full names of the authors are S.M. Shah and S.B. Karve. They have both taught at various engineering colleges in India and have extensive experience in RCC design practice. They have also authored several other books on civil engineering topics.


RCC Theory and Design Principles




In this section, we will briefly introduce some of the basic concepts, material properties, design methods, and design codes and standards of RCC theory and design.


Basic concepts of RCC




Some of the basic concepts of RCC theory and design are:



  • Stress: The force per unit area acting on a material.



  • Strain: The change in length per unit length of a material due to stress.



  • Elasticity: The property of a material to return to its original shape after being deformed by stress.



  • Plasticity: The property of a material to retain its deformed shape after being stressed beyond its elastic limit.



  • Cracking: The formation of cracks in a material due to excessive stress or strain.



  • Creep: The gradual increase in strain over time due to sustained stress.



  • Shrinkage: The reduction in volume or length of a material due to loss of moisture or temperature change.



  • Bending moment: The tendency of a beam or slab to bend due to transverse loads.



  • Shear force: The tendency of a beam or slab to shear or slide along its length due to transverse loads.



  • Torsion: The tendency of a beam or slab to twist due to twisting loads.



  • Deflection: The displacement of a beam or slab from its original position due to loads.



  • Slenderness: The ratio of the effective length to the least lateral dimension of a column.



  • Buckling: The sudden failure of a column due to excessive slenderness and axial load.



  • Reinforcement ratio: The ratio of the area of steel reinforcement to the area of concrete in an RCC section.



  • Neutral axis: The line in an RCC section where the stress is zero.



  • Depth of neutral axis: The distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis in an RCC section.



  • Moment of resistance: The maximum moment that an RCC section can resist without failure.



  • Balanced section: An RCC section where both the concrete and the steel reinforcement reach their ultimate stress at the same time.



  • Under-reinforced section: An RCC section where the steel reinforcement reaches its ultimate stress before the concrete.



  • Over-reinforced section: An RCC section where the concrete reaches its ultimate stress before the steel reinforcement.



Material properties of RCC




Some of the material properties of RCC that affect its behavior and design are:



  • Compressive strength: The maximum compressive stress that a material can withstand without failure. Concrete has a high compressive strength, which varies depending on the grade, curing, and age of the concrete. Steel reinforcement has a much higher compressive strength than concrete, but it is usually ignored in RCC design as it is not effective in resisting compression.



  • Tensile strength: The maximum tensile stress that a material can withstand without failure. Concrete has a low tensile strength, which is about 10% of its compressive strength. Steel reinforcement has a high tensile strength, which is usually constant and independent of the grade, curing, and age of the steel. Steel reinforcement is used in RCC to provide tensile strength and prevent cracking.



  • Modulus of elasticity: The ratio of stress to strain in a material within its elastic range. Concrete has a low modulus of elasticity, which means it is more deformable than steel. Steel reinforcement has a high modulus of elasticity, which means it is stiffer than concrete. The modulus of elasticity of concrete varies depending on the grade, curing, and age of the concrete. The modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement is usually constant and independent of the grade, curing, and age of the steel.



  • Poisson's ratio: The ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain in a material when subjected to uniaxial stress. Concrete has a Poisson's ratio of about 0.2, which means it contracts laterally when compressed and expands laterally when stretched. Steel reinforcement has a Poisson's ratio of about 0.3, which means it behaves similarly to concrete but to a lesser extent.



  • Thermal expansion coefficient: The change in length per unit length of a material due to temperature change. Concrete and steel have similar thermal expansion coefficients, which means they expand and contract at the same rate when subjected to temperature changes. This reduces the thermal stresses and strains in RCC structures.



  • Bond strength: The force per unit area required to separate two materials that are bonded together. Concrete and steel have a good bond strength, which means they adhere well to each other and transfer stress efficiently. Bond strength depends on several factors, such as the surface condition, shape, size, spacing, and cover of the steel reinforcement, as well as the grade, curing, and age of the concrete.



Design methods of RCC




Some of the design methods of RCC that are commonly used are:



  • Working stress method (WSM): This is an elastic method that assumes that both concrete and steel behave linearly within their permissible stresses. The permissible stresses are obtained by dividing the ultimate stresses by suitable factors of safety. This method is simple and conservative, but it does not account for the nonlinear behavior and ultimate capacity of RCC sections.



The limit states are the conditions that define the failure or unsatisfactory performance of an RCC structure. The two main limit states are strength and serviceability. The strength limit state ensures that the RCC section can resist the design loads without collapse. The serviceability limit state ensures that the RCC section can perform its intended function without excessive deflection, cracking, vibration, or corrosion. This method is more realistic and rational, but it requires more calculations and assumptions.


  • Ultimate load method (ULM): This is a plastic method that assumes that both concrete and steel behave nonlinearly and reach their ultimate stresses at failure. The ultimate load is the maximum load that an RCC section can carry without failure. The ultimate load is obtained by equating the internal moment of resistance to the external bending moment. This method is simple and economical, but it does not account for the serviceability and durability of RCC sections.



Design codes and standards of RCC




Some of the design codes and standards of RCC that provide guidelines and specifications for RCC theory and design are:



  • Indian Standard (IS) 456:2000: This is the code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete in India. It covers the general design principles, methods, and criteria for RCC structures. It also provides tables, charts, and graphs for various RCC sections and elements.



  • Indian Standard (IS) 875:1987: This is the code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures in India. It covers the dead loads, live loads, wind loads, snow loads, and special loads for RCC structures.



  • Indian Standard (IS) 1893:2016: This is the code of practice for earthquake resistant design of structures in India. It covers the seismic zones, soil types, response spectra, design coefficients, and ductility requirements for RCC structures.



  • Indian Standard (IS) 13920:2016: This is the code of practice for ductile detailing of reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic forces in India. It covers the minimum reinforcement, spacing, anchorage, curtailment, confinement, and detailing provisions for RCC structures.



  • Indian Standard (IS) 1343:2012: This is the code of practice for prestressed concrete in India. It covers the general design principles, methods, and criteria for prestressed concrete structures. It also provides tables, charts, and graphs for various prestressed concrete sections and elements.



  • Indian Standard (IS) 3370:2009: This is the code of practice for concrete structures for the storage of liquids in India. It covers the general design principles, methods, and criteria for liquid retaining structures. It also provides tables, charts, and graphs for various liquid retaining sections and elements.



  • Indian Standard (IS) 2911:2010: This is the code of practice for design and construction of pile foundations in India. It covers the general design principles, methods, and criteria for pile foundations. It also provides tables, charts, and graphs for various types of piles and pile groups.



  • Indian Standard (IS) 800:2007: This is the code of practice for general construction in steel in India. It covers the general design principles, methods, and criteria for steel structures. It also provides tables, charts, and graphs for various steel sections and elements.



  • Indian Standard (IS) 11384:1985: This is the code of practice for composite construction in structural steel and concrete in India. It covers the general design principles, methods, and criteria for composite structures. It also provides tables, charts, and graphs for various composite sections and elements.



RCC Theory and Design Applications




In this section, we will briefly introduce some of the types, examples, advantages, and disadvantages of RCC structures.


Types of RCC structures




Some of the types of RCC structures that are commonly used are:



  • Beams: These are horizontal or inclined members that span between supports and carry transverse loads. Beams can be classified into different types based on their shape, support condition, loading pattern, reinforcement arrangement, etc.



  • Slabs: These are flat or curved members that span between supports and carry transverse loads. Slabs can be classified into different types based on their shape, support condition, loading pattern, reinforcement arrangement, etc.



  • Columns: These are vertical or inclined members that carry axial loads and sometimes bending moments. Columns can be classified into different types based on their shape, support condition, loading pattern, reinforcement arrangement, etc.



  • Footings: These are the lowest parts of a structure that transfer the load from the columns or walls to the soil. Footings can be classified into different types based on their shape, support condition, loading pattern, reinforcement arrangement, etc.



  • Walls: These are vertical or inclined members that carry lateral loads and sometimes axial loads. Walls can be classified into different types based on their shape, support condition, loading pattern, reinforcement arrangement, etc.



  • Stairs: These are inclined members that provide access between different levels of a structure. Stairs can be classified into different types based on their shape, support condition, loading pattern, reinforcement arrangement, etc.



  • Arches: These are curved members that span between supports and carry transverse loads. Arches can be classified into different types based on their shape, support condition, loading pattern, reinforcement arrangement, etc.



  • Domes: These are hemispherical or spherical members that span over a circular or polygonal area and carry transverse loads. Domes can be classified into different types based on their shape, support condition, loading pattern, reinforcement arrangement, etc.



  • Shells: These are thin curved members that span over a large area and carry transverse loads. Shells can be classified into different types based on their shape, support condition, loading pattern, reinforcement arrangement, etc.



  • Folded plates: These are thin flat members that are folded along their edges to form a three-dimensional structure and carry transverse loads. Folded plates can be classified into different types based on their shape, support condition, loading pattern, reinforcement arrangement, etc.



Examples of RCC structures




Some of the examples of RCC structures that are widely used in various fields and sectors are:



  • Buildings: These are structures that provide shelter and accommodation for various purposes such as residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, etc. Buildings can have various forms and features depending on their function and design. Some examples of RCC buildings are apartments, offices, malls, factories, schools, hospitals, etc.



etc. Bridges can have various forms and features depending on their span, load, location, and design. Some examples of RCC bridges are arch bridges, beam bridges, slab bridges, cantilever bridges, cable-stayed bridges, etc.


  • Dams: These are structures that impound water for various purposes such as irrigation, hydroelectricity, flood control, water supply, etc. Dams can have various forms and features depending on their height, width, shape, location, and design. Some examples of RCC dams are gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams, spillway dams, etc.



  • Tunnels: These are structures that provide passage through or under obstacles such as mountains, rivers, roads, railways, etc. Tunnels can have various forms and features depending on their length, diameter, shape, location, and design. Some examples of RCC tunnels are cut-and-cover tunnels, bored tunnels, immersed tunnels, etc.



  • Water tanks: These are structures that store water for various purposes such as domestic use, industrial use, fire fighting, etc. Water tanks can have various forms and features depending on their capacity, shape, location, and design. Some examples of RCC water tanks are cylindrical tanks, spherical tanks, rectangular tanks, conical tanks, etc.



  • Chimneys: These are structures that vent gases or smoke from furnaces or boilers to the atmosphere. Chimneys can have various forms and features depending on their height, diameter, shape, location, and design. Some examples of RCC chimneys are circular chimneys, square chimneys, tapered chimneys, flared chimneys, etc.



telecommunication, observation, etc. Towers can have various forms and features depending on their height, width, shape, location, and design. Some examples of RCC towers are transmission towers, telecommunication towers, cooling towers, observation towers, etc.


  • Monuments: These are structures that commemorate or symbolize something or someone of historical or cultural significance. Monuments can have various forms and features depending on their purpose, shape, location, and design. Some examples of RCC monuments are statues, memorials, arches, domes, etc.



Advantages and disadvantages of RCC structures




Some of the advantages and disadvantages of RCC structures are:


Advantages





  • Strength and durability: RCC structures have high strength and durability due to the combined action of concrete and steel reinforcement. RCC structures can resist various types of loads and environmental conditions without failure or deterioration.



  • Fire and weather resistance: RCC structures have good fire and weather resistance due to the protective cover of concrete over the steel reinforcement. RCC structures can withstand high temperatures and humidity without losing their strength or shape.



  • Economy and availability: RCC structures are economical and available due to the low cost and wide availability of concrete and steel reinforcement. RCC structures can be constructed with locally available materials and labor without requiring special equipment or skills.



  • Versatility and adaptability: RCC structures are versatile and adaptable due to the flexibility and moldability of concrete and steel reinforcement. RCC structures can be designed and constructed in various shapes, sizes, forms, and features to suit different purposes and requirements.



  • Maintenance and repair: RCC structures have low maintenance and repair costs due to the self-healing property of concrete and the corrosion resistance of steel reinforcement. RCC structures can heal minor cracks and defects by themselves or by applying simple methods such as grouting or patching.



Disadvantages





  • Weight and size: RCC structures have high weight and size due to the high density and volume of concrete and steel reinforcement. RCC structures require large foundations and supports to carry their own weight and loads.



  • Cracking and shrinkage: RCC structures are prone to cracking and shrinkage due to the low tensile strength and high water content of concrete. RCC structures develop cracks due to various factors such as loading, temperature change, moisture loss, creep, etc.



  • Formwork and curing: RCC structures require formwork and curing during construction to give shape and strength to the concrete. Formwork is the temporary structure that supports the fresh concrete until it hardens. Curing is the process of keeping the fresh concrete moist until it gains strength. Formwork and curing are time-consuming and labor-intensive processes that increase the cost and duration of construction.



and failures in RCC structures.


RCC Theory and Design Shah and Karve Book




In this section, we will give you an overview, contents, features, and reviews of the book RCC Theory and Design Shah and Karve.


Overview of the book




RCC Theory and Design Shah and Karve is a comprehensive book on RCC theory and design that covers b


Acerca de

¡Te damos la bienvenida al grupo Neurokiné! Puedes conectart...
bottom of page